Perennial Garden Report

December 12, 2017

Summary

The Perennial Garden’s project is a continuation of the work that was started by Larynn Cutshaw and Maddy Coalmer in the Spring of 2017. The goal of the perennial garden is to increase sustainability efforts on campus and to increase gardening/outdoor education for students. Currently, most of plants on campus are used for aesthetic proposes. It has been proposed to add plants that can be used for education around campus in secluded areas. The type of plants selected for the project are all low long-term maintenance plants such as asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), mint (Mentha spp.), black raspberry bushes (Rubus occidentalis), and red raspberry bushes (Rubus idaeus). In addition, various types of native milkweed have also been selected for planting as they can help attract pollinators and support monarch butterfly larvae. Approximate prices for the plants and potential locations around campus have been researched and compiled into a single spread sheet. Suggestions have been made but it remains unknown who will plant the garden or how it will be maintained for future years.

Image result for milkweed and monarchs

Methods

This project had already been started in the previous semester with locations scouted out and a few plants suggested. I picked up the project by researching potential plants and creating a spread sheet containing all the suggested plants’ growing requirements. I was able to contact Maddy Coalmer to discuss with her the perennial garden project and determine what details still needed to be figured out based on where she and Emily left off at the end of the spring semester. Maddy informed me of some of the ideas that she and Emily had for the gardens and shared with me their completed plans.

After speaking with Maddy, I gained a better understanding of what work remained with planning the garden in hopes of it someday becoming a reality. As an addition to the gardens, I wanted to add native milkweed plants, so I researched the various types of milkweed that grows in central Ohio and added their information onto the already started spreadsheet of other plants. I had the pleasure of meeting with Dustin Braden, a freshman student on campus with insight on some sources where plants and seeds could be purchased for the garden. His first suggested was Spencer Restoration Nursery in Indiana. When I looked up the nursery, most of the plants they sell are by the seeds which would work well for starting some of the plants. However, the nursery also sells plants by the flats which is more expensive, but the plants are already well established. Some other suggested nurseries are Oakland Nursery down the street, OSU Chadwick Arboretum & Learning Gardens and potentially Delaware FLOW. They also sell some of the potential plants by the seedlings or mature. With multiple locations, it should not be very difficult to pick up any plants ordered from them, but I was unable to determine how much plants from them would cost.

Based on the small amount of pricing information I was able to find combined with the price estimate that Dustin provided me with, I estimate that the initial cost of buying plants for the garden to be $500-$600 if mature plants are bought or $200-$300 if seeds are used.

Due to the time of the year that I started working on perennial gardens project and the amount of logistics that still needed to be determined, little work has been done in getting the gardens started. There were also still too many unknowns such as financing and who was planting the planted that needed to be determined before breaking the soil.

Results

Plants

All the plants suggested by Emily and Maddy are edible plants that would eventually produce something that students could pick whenever they would like. The plants could also be used to educate students and or the public about how their food is grown. I selected to add native milkweed because they are an easy perennial plant that can also be edible, used for educational purposes and support the local ecosystem. Native plants are plants that naturally occur in the area and help to support a healthy environment as they co-evolved with other native organisms. Milkweed was also selected because it is a perennial and the only plant that Monarch Butterfly larvae feed on. Milkweed is typically known for being poisonous, however some types of milkweed and parts can be eaten if prepared correctly. Milkweed has also been found to have some potential medicinal properties such as the treatment of diarrhea, treatment of insect stings and treatment of bladder stones.

Costs and Maintenance

After speaking with Dustin Braden, some potential places that could supply the plants was determined such as Spence Restoration Nursery and local Oakland Nursery. There are some other local plant places that might be able to help supply some of the plants such as OSU Chadwick Arboretum & Learning Gardens depending on the time of year. I looked around for approximate costs of all the plants to gain an idea for how much money would be needed to start the garden. If 6 individual mature plant of each kind on the list were purchased, it would cost about $500-$600 however if seeds were used, the cost would be about $200-$300.

Even though all the plants are considered low maintenance, some maintenance is still required like fall trimming and harvesting. A few of the suggestions that have come up is starting a gardening club that could have its members help care the garden. This would also allow for the garden to get funding through WSCA to help gain the materials needed to start the garden. Another suggestion has been to have multiple clubs collaborate to help maintain the gardens. This would allow for more students to be involved as the garden is spread out across multiple locations around campus. Emily during the spring conducted an interest survey to see how many students might be interested in having a gardening activity class that would maintain the garden. She found that there was a high interest among students if the timing of the class did not conflict with other activities. Having a class would allow for the garden to maintain an educational purpose and provide an opportunity for students to learn about gardening practices.

20171126_144106    20171126_1439511.jpg

A few potential locations

Recommendations

My recommendations for the future of this project is to try and contact buildings and grounds again to get their approval and to discuss details with them. I think that the next step would be to determine the how the fund the gardens either through grants, clubs or a class. I have calculated a rough estimate of the initial cost of the plants to get the gardens started. If funding and maintenance can be established, plants should be quickly finalized as most of the plants should be planted in the spring after the frost. This varies depending on if the plants are started from seed vs a mature plant. Some plants such as milkweed, if planted from seeds can start in the fall as the seeds require the frost to determine when to start sprouting. Once plants have arrived and people established to plant the garden, the perennial garden should be able to be started and maintained for many years to come.

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Colten Harvey’s Project Report

December 11, 2017

Establishing Bee Hives on Ohio Wesleyan University’s Campus

Summary:

            The goal of my project was to establish permanent bee hives somewhere on the campus of Ohio Wesleyan University. These hives would be used for educational purposes for the Ohio Wesleyan community; including OWU courses and individual student projects. We also hope that the construction of these hives will also help raise awareness about bees and help to make students realize the important role they play. In order to accomplish our goal, we established a new club at Ohio Wesleyan, the beekeeping club. OWU student, Peyton Hardesty, whom I have been in contact with over the course of this project, heads this club. Beekeeping club has been approved by the student government and has already held a few meetings, official elections will be held in the spring.

Why Bees?

Bees are important to human life, providing us with products like honey and wax. However, Bees are most notably a vital organism to our planet and its health. Bees play a critical role in pollination and are directly responsible for 20% of all plant pollination worldwide. This amount is nearly double compared to any other pollinating species. This goes to show how critical bees really are, especially in industries like agriculture, which is vital to the economy of the United States and much of the world. Bees produce nearly twenty billion dollars of crops yearly in the United States alone, pollinating over four hundred different types of agricultural plants. This is why many states, including Ohio, have recognized the importance of bees and have established laws in attempts to protect them. Bees pollinate many fruits and vegetables that are key to the Ohio economy, including but not limited to apples, melons, cucumbers, pumpkins, sunflowers, and canola. In 1904, the state of Ohio passes House Bill 28 and has been involved with and monitoring beekeeping in the state ever since. The Ohio Apiary Program conducts county and state wide inspections in attempts to keep a healthy Ohio bee population. In 2015, 4,838 beekeepers registered in accordance with Ohio Revised Code section 909.02 that represents 6,571 apiaries, and an estimated 36,235 colonies.

The bee population has been decreasing dramatically for some time now. Many scientists claim that the bees are dying at an alarming rate and if this continues bees could be gone forever. For 2015-2016 the overall colony loss rate was forty four percent, this rate is much higher then the acceptable loss rate of seventeen. This should be very alarming to humans, since bees are so crucial to our world for the reasons listed above. Bees are declining for a number of reasons. Mites are the number one cause for the death of bee colonies but loss of habitat, pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides are all major factors as well. With bees being so vital to our world and with their struggling population I hope that establishing beehives around campus will be a relatively easy way for us at OWU to do our part and help the cause

Methods and Results:

            The establishment of bee hives on campus has been attempted previously, however the attempt deemed unsuccessful. I began my project by researching this previous attempt and trying to understand why it failed. What I found was that Meg Deeter, a recent OWU grad, had written a small grant to establish two hives behind Sanborn Hall at the Monet Gardens in 2016. Meg worked alongside the head apiarist at Stratford Ecological Center, who is the current mentor of OWU bee keeping club president Peyton Hardesty, to establish these hives. Unfortunately both hives over-wintered very poorly and consequently failed. After examining the reasons for the collapse of the hives it was determined that the chosen location was far too shady, there was a large infestation of hive beetle, and it was suspected that Buildings and Grounds fertilizes in these locations, but no one knows for certain. However, the bee keeping club and the university feel they have learned a lot from this past failure and are very optimistic about the future of bees at OWU.

My next step was to join the newly established beekeeping club and presenting my project idea, in hopes to cooperate with them to achieve the goal of bee hives on campus. Since joining, I have attended the meetings, helped to figure out the logistics of the hives, spread awareness around campus, recruited new members, and created a website for the use of the club. (https://sites.google.com/owu.edu/beeowu/bee-club-owu)

The club has been working hard since its creation, and along with collaboration from nearby Stratford Ecological Center, plan to establish permanent bee hives on campus in the spring of 2018. I was tasked with the job of scouting multiple locations, noting the positives and negatives of each site. This information was then used to select the location that the hive will be placed, which is currently proposed to be at the Monet gardens.

Unfortunately it was not possible to install the hives during this semester because it would be hard on the bees to be established before winter. Stratford has agreed to donate to the beekeeping club and the university a hive (possibly two) and the bees themselves. This was a pleasant surprise and reduced the work required for my project. I was originally planning to take on the task of determining what materials would be necessary to establish the hives, determine the amount of money that would be needed, and then applying for a grant to purchase these materials. However due to the generosity of Stratford, none of this was required. Stratford and the beekeeping club made the decision that the implementation of a top bar hive would be the most logical choice. A top bar hive (picture below) was chosen because they are relatively easy to use and are great for educational purposes, making it easier to observe the bees. The club feels that having permanent bee hives on campus will be a great opportunity for OWU students to be exposed to these amazing creatures and to help educate them on the important role that bees play within our world.

topbarhive.png

Future Plans:

            As stated above we plan on being able to install the hives during the spring semester of 2018. I hope to continue to work with Peyton, the beekeeping club, and Stratford to see this project through. The area that we have selected for the bee hives will need to be prepped for the arrival of the bees and the bees will need to be taken care of. I would not be opposed to helping with any hive maintenance or doing things such as helping to harvest the honey. I also hope that after the installation of the hives the OWU community is using them. I, along with the beekeeping club, will hopefully encourage students and professors to utilize these resources for their projects or their classes.

 

Recommendations:

            I would recommend that Ohio Wesleyan and the beekeeping club continue and build the relationship that has been established with the Stratford Ecological Center. They have been very generous in helping OWU with this project and have experience dealing with bees and are willing to help us along the way. I think it would also be useful to educate buildings and grounds about where the hives will be located and the kind of conditions that will be required to keep the bees healthy and avoid a colony failure like last time. It may also be a good idea to create some signage to post around the area, warning people that bee hives are present and what shouldn’t be done in this area (ex. Spraying fertilizer). Finally, I think it is necessary to inform the Ohio Wesleyan community as to what has been done so far and what our future plans are. We could do this by putting the bee website link somewhere on the OWU page, making posters/fliers, and posting in the OWU daily/The Transcript. I think this would help to raise awareness about the project and hopefully get more people interested in bees and on board with what is going on.

 

Contacts:

Dr. Krygier- jbkrygier@owu.edu

Peyton Hardesty- prhardes@owu.edu

Stratford Ecological Center- info@stratfordecologicalcenter.org

 

Appendix:

Project Presentation Link:

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1MpXBLYI76B2f6j2AGlzDCKvsGZ9KHTc_OjpzxMKrbJs/edit#slide=id.p

 

Website Link:

https://sites.google.com/owu.edu/beeowu/bee-club-owu

Citations:

Bee-ginner’s Kit. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2017, from       http://www.brushymountainbeefarm.com/beekeepingsupplies/beeginnerskts

 

Bromenshenk, J. J. (1978). Yet Another Job for Busy Bees. Sciences, 18(6), 12

 

Chadwick, K. (2016). Save the Bees with Natural Backyard Hives: The Easy and

 

Treatment-Free Way to Attract and Keep Healthy Bees. Library Journal, 141(1), 123

Chapter 909: APIARIES. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2017, from

http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/909

 

Eagan, R. (2016). 100 Plants To Save the Bees: The Best Flowers, Herbs,

Shrubs, and Trees To Nourish and Sustain Native Bees, Honey Bees, and

Other Pollinators. Library Journal, 141(19), 103.

 

Hardesty, Peyton. Founder and President of Bee Club at Ohio Wesleyan

University.

 

How To Get Started In Beekeeping. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2017, from

http://www.honeybeesonline.com/how-to-get-started-in-beekeeping/

 

Hubbell, S. (1997). Trouble with honeybees. Natural History, 106(4), 32.

 

Queen, Nuc and Package Suppliers. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2017, from

http://www.ohiostatebeekeepers.org/resources/queen-nuc-and-package-suppliers/

 

Spivak, M. (2015, March 05). Opinion: What will happen if the bees disappear?

Retrieved September 25, 2017, from

http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/17/opinion/spivak-loss-of-bees/index.html

 

Why Bees Are Important to Our Planet. (2014, December 17). Retrieved September

25, 2017, from http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/why-

bees-are-important-to-our-planet/


Sources for Compost Projects

December 10, 2017

 

Large Scale Composting places to start:

Other past projects to look into:

What other colleges have done:

Possibilities for funding:

How to compost

                Small scale composting: (how to, benefits, uses)

               What not to compost:

Composting in winter:

Indoor composters:

 

 


Colten Harvey’s Digital Profile

December 9, 2017

W2: “Sullivan” Meadowlands and Cronin “The Trouble With Wilderness” 

-Current event and intro

W3: Abbey “Desert Solitaire” and Current Event

W4: Bruckner “The Fanaticism of the Apocalypse”  and Current Event

W5: Coates “Nature” 1-5 and Current Event

W6: Coates “Nature” 6-9 and Project Proposal and Current Event

W7: Foer “Eating Animals” and Current Event

W8: No posting, Fall Break

W9: No posting, Meet at Dr. Krygier

W10: Robbins et al. “Environment and Society” 1st half and Current event

W11: Robbins et al. “Environment and Society” 2nd half and Current Event

W12: Urbanik “Placing Animals” (I Presented with Amber) and Current Event

Book Notes

-In the preface the author, Julie Urbanik, describes the book as “an invitation to see and reflect on your own particular relationships with nonhumans and why you have them even as it is an invitation to see how human societies relate to the nonhuman world”

Book overview:

-chapter 1: explains the rise of the third wave of animal geography- our deep understanding of how humans are impacting the natural world, the rise of animal related social movements, the shift to a postmodern/posthuman framework that is learning to see other than human beings as actors in the world, and finally our increasing public love for animals

-chapter 2: overview of three waves

  • First being the cataloging of species
  • Second being the domestication of animals
  • Third encompasses all forms of human-animal relations

-chapter 3: pets and culture (history, impact on cultural landscape, ethical/political issues)

-chapter 4: working animals

-chapter 5: farmed animals

-Chapter 6: wild animals

-chapter 7: summary

*“the role of place is, perhaps, the most fundamental idea that emerges from the body of work that is animals geography. We have built a conception of place that includes not only the physical realities (farm, zoo, home) but also the conceptual locations of animals (pet, pest, food)”

Questions:

-How would you describe animals?

  • “American naturalist Henry Beston once wrote that animals “are not brethren, they are not underlings, they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time, fellow prisoners of the splendor and travail of the Earth” (pg. 1)
  • What does this mean??
  • In Latin the word animals simply means “having breath”
  • Broadly defined as lifeforms, either vertebrate or invertebrate that consume and digest their food as opposed to photosynthesizing it

-How do we interact with animals?

  • Eat them, wear them, live with them, work them, experiment on them, try to save them, spoil them, abuse them, fight them, hunt them, buy, sell, and trade them, and love, hate, or fear them.
  • Working animals = educational (dissection, labs, zoos), entertainment (racing, circus, shows, TV), and service animals (agriculture, transport, hunting, herding, therapy, military, law enforcement)
    • Is it ok to patent an animal? Lab mice
    • 115 million animals used for human research annually
    • These working animals significantly contribute to the economic activity
  • Domestication has been occurring for thousands of years and originated mostly in Asia and their are four main methods for producing food animals
    • Nomadic pasoralsim
    • Subsistence animal farming
    • Small-scale market farming
    • Industrial farming (CAFO, concentrated animal feeding operation)
  • “The mindset of european powers while colonizing- a goal of bringing the uncivilized people to civilization to improve them and fix them- was applied to breeding animals and plants”
  • Over 87 million people participate in some form of wildlife related activities (hunting, fishing, watching, feeding) – 122.3 billion being spent in 2006, contributing greatly to local economies and many livelihoods
    • Tourism industry is one of largest examples- we redesign nature to meet the tastes of global consumption

-Why is it important to study and attempt to understand the relationships between humans and animals?

  • We still have a lot to learn about our surrounding environment. According to Hickman et al. 2011, we estimate that anywhere from five million to fifty million different species can be found on earth, however only 1.8 million of these have been named and classified

-Why do we treat some animals different than others?

  • pets vs food
  • “Humans have a history of seeing animals as terrible beats, emblematic of the unknown and the uncontrollable forces of nature, but on the other hand, we also have a long history of seeing animals as emblems of beauty, power, and even the divine or spiritual.” (pg. 51)
  • Petkeeping is simply an extension of our desire to control the nonhuman world
  • Humans see their home as safe places separate from the outside world, believe that “wild” animals have no place here

-Why do we separate ourselves from animals? Who has the right to tell other people what they can do with or to animals?

  • Clergy used to believe that animals did not have souls and thought it wrong to put animals with humans because they were clearly inferior (pg. 54)

-Christian traditions teach that humans are dominant over animals and even go about naming each one, further separating humans from animals.

    • Also teach that humans were made in God’s image, but doesn’t mention animals
    • The story of Noah and the Ark shows humans as caretakers or stewards for the animals
    • Even the birth story of Jesus Christ has a connection to animals
    • Heavy symbolism (Christ as lion, devil as snake)

-Islam

  • Much like the bible, the Koran teaches that Allah created the Earth and all living things, yet humans were created special.
  • Also portrays humans as animal stewards who should treat other species properly
  • The stories about the prophet Muhammad include banning the consumption of pigs and requires reducing the pain and certain rituals to be performed when slaughtering an animal
  • Muhammad saw animal as subjects with experiences and feelings and rebuked people for their mistreatment of animals

-Hinduism

  • Polytheistic
  • Many are vegetarians due to the Hindu’s idea of nonviolence
  • One of ancient hindu texts instructs followers not to consume flesh
  • Many hold the cow as a sacred animal because one of the major gods would often appear as a cow, therefore cows are held in high regard and as “mothers”

 

  • Even our language can be used to separate humans from animals

-Women can be bitches, pussies, pigs, cows, foxes, hens, chicks, cougars etc

-Men can be studs and dogs

  • When governments and politicians make laws regarding animal treatment they are claiming they have the power to determine how animals can be used and where. Is this ok?

-What is our obsession with pets?

  • “Pets are replacing human children in today’s society” (pg. 58)

-Do you agree? Why do you think this is true?

-pets are easier to raise than kids

-allow for more freedom

  • 73 Million homes in US have at least one pet
  • 377 million animals as pets
  • Spend estimated 51 billion dollars on pets in 2011, as compared to 28.5 billion in 2001
  • Good for capitalism
  • “More than human family” would you consider your family this?
  • Important way for humans to connect with nature

Cons:

  • Have a pet overpopulation problem- millions being killed every year
    • What do we think of sending surplus dogs and cats to places around the world to be eaten?
  • “We have so distorted the domesticated dog from its wolf ancestor that Tuan argues that this must be seen as the most brutal kind of domination”
  • “We crop off their tails and ears, remove their voice boxes, declaw them, spay and neuter them, and bathe them. All of these practices suggest both the desire to control and the desire to be free from the unruly, wild side”

Ethics and politics of animals:

  • Beastiality (having sex with animals), zoophilia (loving consensual relation with animal), Zoosadism (sexual pleasure from harming animal) are all rejected by our culture and religion and are thought to be immoral and sinful. But who has the right to say so?
    • Should these conditions be approached as sexual orientations much like homosexuals?
  • Are animals to be considered property?
  • What happens when these different views become extreme?
    • Animal rights extremists = terrorists
    • Do you think you are a terrorists? (girl in class)
  • Conundrum for all industrial animal production- in the drive to meet consumer demand are we consuming the animals we think we are? (CAFOs)
    • Eating animals book
  • Most of the politics around geographies of human wildlife relations have to do with who gets to use, protect, or otherwise control wildlife for preservation, conservation, or use as a resource

W13: Stoknes “What We Think About When We Try Not To Think About Climate Change” and Current event

 


Link to Niemeyer Final Project Write Up

December 9, 2017

Final write up

Sources for Compost Projects


Makali’s Digital Portfolio

December 9, 2017

W1 Beginning Intro

W 2 Cronon The Trouble with Wilderness & Sullivan The Meadowlands

 W3 Abbey Desert Solitaire

W4 Bruckner The Fanaticism of the Apocalypse

W5 Coates Nature (preface and ch. 1-5)

(I presented) W6 Coates Nature (ch. 6-9)

W7 Project Proposal

W7 Foer Eating Animals

No reading week, but current event

W10 Robbins Environment & Society

W11 Robbins Environment & Society (Part 2)

W12 Urbanik Placing Animals

W13 Stoknes What We Think About When We Try Not To Think…


Amber Digital Portfolio

December 7, 2017

Amber’s Digital Portfolio

W 2: Cronon “The Trouble with Wilderness” + Sullivan “The Meadowlands”

W 3: Abbey “Desert Solitaire”

W 4: Bruckner “The Fanaticism of the Apocalypse: Save the Earth, Punish Human Beings”

W 5: Coates “Nature” (preface and ch. 1-5)

W 6: Coates “Nature” (ch. 6-9)

W 7: Foer “Eating Animals”

W 10: Robbins et al.“Environment & Society” (first half)

W 11: Robbins et al.“Environment & Society” (second half)

W 12: Urbanik “Placing Animals”

W 13: Stoknes “What We Think About When We Try Not To Think About Global Warming: Toward a New Psychology of Climate Action”

Project Proposal

Reading Presentation Notes: Eating Animals

Rene Descartes view animals as automatons because they could not speak the same way as humans and concluded that animals could not reason meaning a difference existed between us and them. Michel Montaigne recognized that some animals could identify a level of “self” and suggested that animals were more like clocks. Charles Darwin’s theory placed humans and animals on the same level as a result of evolution. The human view of animals has changed numerous times so what do you think the view is today of animals? (pg 3)

  • Usage of them for scientific models for human research

The author mentions that depending on where you are and your culture, can influence your behavior towards animals. Why do you think this is?

  • Could be defined cultural and local practices and economic utility (Grossman)
  • Any others? religion ?
  • Opinion on other cultures judging others for their view of animals?
  • What wave of zoography are we currently or do you think we are in a new wave?

King Solomon: “pet keeping is simply an extension of the desire to control the nonhuman world”. What are your opinions of this quote? Is this related to the way we define “wildlife/ nature” in national parks? (pg 51)

Pet:  pampered and usually spoiled child; a person who is treated with unusual kindness or consideration :darling; a domesticated animal kept for pleasure rather than utility (Merriam Webster)

Pet: any domesticated or tamed animal that is kept as a companion and cared for affectionately; a person especially cherished or indulged; a thing particularly cherished. (Dictionary.com)

USDA Definition of a Pet https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/pet-travel/definition-of-a-pet

“Throughout the history of empires, animals have been used to demonstrate power and control over territory as well as for diplomacy and gift giving between powers”. (pg 78)

“The main purpose of these zoos was to provide a way to see and study the different species of the world. Very little attention was paid at all to the lives of the animals in captivity and most cages were bare and empty in order to better see the animals”. (pg 78)

  • Clearly the standards of zoos and aquariums have changed greatly. What purpose do you believe they serve now?
  • Empty the tank and cages movement; the “zoo question”: should we keep animals in captivity or not?
  • Entertainment: animal fighting, racing, circus, television and film use

Animal usage for many tasks from military to draft and entertainment

  • There are many arguments today that state that we should not be using animals to our own benefits? Opinions?
  • Benefits they provided to us for economic and safety (Military & police dogs bred to work)
  • “More than a dozen municipalities in the United States, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, India, and Austria ban or restrict wild animal performances, while districts in Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia and Greece ban some or all animal acts”. (pg 98)
  • What about lab animals?

Farming of animals, mink, tigers, bears, etc, for the purpose of using their meat, fur and bone. Arguments say that doing this doesn’t benefit the remaining wild animals as their is no reason for the consumption of the animals and can be attributed to the declining wild populations due to it encouraging poaching. While others say by farming these animals we are protecting the remaining wild populations.

  • Thoughts?
  • Rhinos and trimming the horn to try and prevent poaching then selling the trimmed horn for help meet demand for rhino horn while others are banking on the extinction of them before selling their horn. The gold of the 21st century