Environment & Society

Reconciliation Ecology: ecology which considers the relationship that humans have with the environment

  • education and literacy for women is the best way to cap population growth
  • population is rising at an exponential rate
  • individual carbon footprints can make a difference
  • certain populations (often first world) have massive carbon footprints, as do urban areas

Response Market Model predicts economic responses based on scarcity, which will increase prices and alleviate the drain on a resource by lessened demand, and forced alternatives found

  • private regulation via contracts works better than legislation (theoretically)
  • curbing mechanisms include: green taxes, markets for pollution, and green consumer choices
  • markets, cannot however, be the sole source of environmental regulation, as they fail. Plus some resources are difficult to value

Collective action is the best combatant for environmental issues versus individual exceptionalism

  • institutions, shared property, boundaries within these, proportional distribution of resources, monitoring, collective choice, sanctions, conflict resolution, and autonomy can help coordinate a community of sharing.
  • shifting mindsets from human centric conservation to ecocentric conservation
  • value of nature for the sake of it existing as nature (void of exponential capital mindsets)
  • we need to begin thinking of environmental issues of a set of risks and hazards and consider cultural/economic social perspectives.

Social constructions like “wilderness” and “desertification” are things we need to be open minded about in order to find quick progressive solutions. This is especially pertinent when considering environmental racism and our attitudes towards waste, as the problem of hazardous waste becomes increasingly unavoidable.

  • the political economy perpetuates the denial of carbon effects and the potentials of solutions
  • Ethics of tree recovery show a human focus on conservation
  • social constructs of wolves have evolved over time, including a reflection of how we treat each other
  • Tuna are being harvested at devastatingly high rates. “war-like” fishing technologies are driving these numbers down. Dolphins have also suffered from these technologies. Conservation consumption choice exists like “dolphin-safe” brands
  • water bottles and the privatization of nature. Has created an economy for poorer nations but at the expense of a dependent unsustainable economy


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