Big things are happening at Salamandar Swamp

March 25, 2015

After finally seining the area, I will be working with Kristin Piper along with Chris Roshon who is a Natural Resources Manager for the Preservation Parks.  I sent my availability to everyone so we can plan things.  Tomorrow at 5pm I will be meeting Chris there to set the salamander traps to see if we can figure out what salamanders are back there.  We want to do water tests with Kristin, maybe biological and we want to do chemical, we are really interested in pH.  We want to do an ORAM score for the area where Chris will hopefully be helping me with that.  Talked about mapping the invasive species in the area and mapping the vegetation.  We talked about doing a reptile study or snake study of the area.  We talked about talking to Dick Tuttle about looking at the birds in the area and maybe putting a chimney swift tower in this area.  We also want to compare the sides of where the salamanders are by looking at the side by the road where there is a lot of noise compare to the upper area of the swamp where it is quieter.  Talked about removing an area of honeysuckle from a place and planting native species in that removed area.  Want to make fake logs for the salamanders to live in because the area is missing logs.

I am talking to tree house and environmental and wildlife club in hoping to include this area in their clean up ideas during Green Week.


News Blurb: “Ringling Bros. to Retire Its Circus Elephants”

March 25, 2015

Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey announced at the beginning of this month that they would be retiring all of their circus elephants by 2018. The elephants will be sent to a conservation center to live out their lives and the company will focus efforts toward elephant conservation. This decision comes following pressure and accusations from PETA and the Humane Society of the United States, among with other animal welfare groups.
Circus elephant
March 5, 2015

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/03/150305-ringling-bros-retires-asian-elephants-barnum-bailey/


Reflections and Discussion Guide for Urbanik’s “Placing Animals”

March 25, 2015

The Human Animal Landscape

Chapter One Geography and Human-Animal Relations

  • Where, how and why do we have the relationships that we do with different animals? Why are some animals food and some animals pets? Why are some animals both? Do we have obligations to other species? Do some animals matter more than others?
  • 3 key points about human-animal relations complicate our relations with animals (true now and historically)
  1. The boundary between humans and animals is not consistent
  2. Animals are much more than simply background to human lives only to be acknowledged intermittently – they’re central to people’s everyday existence (bees, leather, etc)
  3. Who and where you are as a human in the world shapes the interaction you will have with different species

The author says that the purpose of this book is to help understanding of

  • the relationship between animal geography and the larger animal studies academic community
  • the any geographies of human-animal interactions around the world
  • the way in which animal geography is both challenging and contributing to the major fields of human and nature-society geography
  • the role of place in shaping human-animal interactions
    1. material places – zoo, slaughterhouse, home, wild
    2. symbolic places – scientific, literary, moral, theoretical

Causes for increased scrutiny of human-animal relationships

One reason – Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution placed value in “human rationality over emotion and the individual over the collective” which allowed for more science in some ways, but also 1) homogenized human experience (despite differences in gender roles, racial histories, colonial histories, sexual identities, etc) and 2) denies the interconnectedness of humans and the planet

Now people are moving toward “posthuman” period that “challenges notions of what has historically been seen to separate humans from animals.” Bashing “Once-key markers of human superiority and uniqueness – tool use, language, abstract thought, even culture itself as the ability to pass down behaviors” – animals are no longer only objects to be studied and categorized, now we understand that their experiential lives count, as do our experiences with them.

Fouts and Washoe

“This book will emphasize five major categories: cultural, ecological, economic, ethical, and political” geographies. These terms are also defined (pg 11-12).

THE TIGER: PANTHERA TIGRIS

“Today more tigers are estimated to be in captivity as pets in the United States than in the wild, a testament to our contradictory relations with them. We love them and want to save them for their wildness, yet we also want some of that wildness for ourselves, and so keeping them as pets or using them for medicine becomes a way to connect with their power.”

Overview of Animal Studies

  • Human-animal studies (HAS) is usually credited as rooted in Peter Singer (philosopher)’s book Animal Liberation (1975) and Tom Regan’s book The Case for Animal Rights (1983), which both included info about current conditions of animal treatment – which has a shock factor for many people.
    • Singer said – society should try to maximize good and minimize harm including with animals
    • Regan said – “animals, like humans, are “subjects of a life” and, as such, have intrinsic value and the right to live their lives as subjects.”
    • Which do you connect most with?

Parallels (pg 16) between “the emergence of animal studies in the academy echoes the rise of other identity-based studies such as ethnic, gender, and race studies programs” says Ken Shapiro… marginalization of animals?

“This comparison is not to claim that nonhumans or their treatment is commensurate with different human groups, but to recognize (1) certain groups have been treated differently over the course of history around the world and (2) understanding this treatment is part of understanding the collective experience of human societies. Animal studies scholars argue that animals have basically been taken for granted by humans and kept to the edges of not only our daily lives, but our intellectual thought, and we need to “recover” animals as animals…”

Animals have been seen as “biotic elements” and influential philosophers and scientists like Descartes have built animals up in this way by concluding things like “animals cannot speak and lacked soul and therefore were no more than instinctually driven automatons” –

How many people have pets? Do you have a favorite pet story? What animals do we come in contact with every day?

Speciesism: the attitude that regards all nonhumans as inferior to humans and therefore not a part of the human moral system. Parallels to concepts like racism and sexism because people “are made out to be less than other groups simply because of who they are.” (17)

Chapter Two A History of Animal Geography

  • The organization or categorization of animals is impacted by location and culture

The First Wave of Animal Geography

  • Zoogeography heavily influenced by scientists like Darwin, before which people believed that animals lived where ever they were most suited for
  • Animal geography allowed people to ask why there weren’t the same species in very similar habitats – why don’t all tropical rainforests have the same species?
  • In 1937, Allee and Schmidt describe ways in which “civilized man” impacts other species in the cases of deforestation, managed forests, agriculture, gardens and parks, buildings, unintended transport, and direct eradications
    • And they conclude that the only hope for preservation of natural conditions for the future lies in the establishment of state and national parks to serve as refuges and sanctuaries for wildlife

The Second Wave of Animal Geography

  • “Grossman (1984) documents how cultural variables like values and local practices can be crucial forces shaping present-day animal-related livestock practices. In other words, human use of nonhumans as livestock is not defined only by economic utility – sheep may not be valuable enough for ceremonial exchange and so sheep herding wouldn’t take hold
  • Frederick Simoons and James Baldwin (1982) studied the practice of women breastfeeding other species (pg 35)

The Third Wave or “New” Animal Geography

  • started in the early 1990s
  • the intersection of events, an academic reassessment of culture and subjectivity, and…
  • a desire to unpack the “black box” of nature (which we’ve been doing in this class!)
  • Elder, Wolch, and Emel (1998) “outline the ways in which practices on different animal bodies (e.g., eating, fighting, researching) are used to police relations between different human groups in different places. They point out that what is an accepted practice depends on the dominant human group in a particular place, and animal geographers can study how actions (1) reinforce human-to-human power relations and (2) reinforce boundaries between humans and other species.” (38)
    • “Not only are humans working out relations with animals, but human groups are also competing, confronting, and conforming with each other about animals in addition to having relations with them” (39)
    • Biomedical research treatment of chimpanzees.. is government the strongest factor? Not science? Where do other people think the power lies? Who decides that it’s ok to use animals in this way or other ways?
  • “A geoethical approach would ask us to consider both the individual animal and the larger ecosystem” Where and how is the animal being raised and slaughtered: What is the impact of that animal’s life on the ecosystem compared to the scale of animals produced for consumption? These types of questions allow a more nuanced approach than trying to fit all human-animal relations into one value system” (40)
  • Hybridity – the idea that humans are not the only actors – other animals have culture and identity too – human identity is created in relation to other living and nonliving things (41) Actor Network Theory (ANT) has also pushed this idea.
  • Elephants in different places (wild, zoo, circus) – “In all cases, which humans and which elephants matter because the humans and elephants morph and shift with each encounter [that they have with each other]” “Hybridity, then, helps animal geographers see that (1) subjects exist – human, elephant—in and of themselves, and (2) a constellation of identity relations forms when different human-human, human-animal, and animal-animal configurations appear in specific places.”
    • Allows animal geographers to focus on the individual relationships
  • This animal geography
    • Decentralizes humans as the focal subject
    • Recognizes the agency of nonhumans
    • Demands a geographically rich analysis of the ways in which the full spectrum of human-animal relations develop

Discussion Question: “When and where do you encounter individual animals versus groups or animals or their parts? How does your behavior change depending on the location? Why?”

Chapter Three Geographies of More-than-Human Homes and Cultures

  • What constitutes a pet?
    • Michael Vick pit bull fighting ring
    • Travis the chimpanzee shot after attacking his owner
    • Dogs belong in the home in most areas of the US and not in fighting rings, but in some places they can belong in both. Many people would argue that chimpanzees do not belong in the home at all.
    • But, who has the right to tell people what they can and cannot do with animals?
  • Dominance and Affection: The Making of Pets by Yi-Fu Tuan discusses human’s respect and admiration for animals as terrible beasts, held in high regard, but that humans dominate and exploit as displays of human power over the natural world (51)
    • How are pets similar or different to having lawns?
    • Goldfish and dogs bred to human specifications – dog breeds suffer many health problems to achieve the look desirable to humans
    • Pets are further manipulated to make them more suited to live in our homes by spaying and neutering them, removing their claws, bathing them, clipping their ears and tails, etc.
      • Tuan says this isn’t the only way people can live with animals thought- pets can be a way to connect people to the larger world around them because living together creates intimacy and opportunities to connect
    • Dog stealing in Victorian days impacted the upper class and exemplified the owner’s attachment to the animals, causing fear among men and women but the author says ultimately reinforcing women as safest in the home
    • Pet cemeteries were against the wishes of clergy, but were supported by upper class women who were exerting their own power by publicly valuing their pets while bringing open grieving and “feminine emotionality” into public spaces (54) [picture of these places?
      Hyde Park Cemetery
  • “Animal terms within languages are used metaphorically to emphasize links between human and animal traits, but they also normalize attitudes about other species” (57) {women as bitches, pussies, pigs, cows, chicks and cougars}

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHIES

  • pets can be anyone and anything you want them to be (57)
  • pets can be furry children (you worry about their eating), part of your pack (you limit and control them), or individuals with their own agency (you play with them when they bring you a toy and learn to play their games)
  • animal representations in media

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

  • “What are your relationships with your pets like? More dominance? Or affection?”
  • “What is a more-than-human family? Who is keeping whom?”

Chapter 4 Beasts of Burden: Geographies of Working Animals

Include diagram of places animals are kept for work

  • Zoos began as early as 3500 BCE in Egypt.. then zoos became more common and popular as humans encountered and brought back species from places they’d colonized. Now, zoos are said to be more “educational entertainment” where the goal is to get people to learn more about the species and the problems they face, but they’re still kept in cages (or as they’re sometimes called, habitats or enclosures)
  • Animal research: pure and applied research as well as “in studies of toxicity of chemicals, cosmetics, and military for weapons testing and training, and in all levels of education”
  • Animals as entertainment – racing, circuses, film and television – training animals to do things like ride on segways. Jump barrels, and pose
  • Elephant logging (83)
  • Service and therapy animals (85)

THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

  • zoos denote spaces between humans and animals
  • the zoo is where “the raw material of nature is crafted into iconic representation of human capacity for order and control”
    • habitats are designed to allow animals to behave in their most natural ways
    • takes away animals agency
  • cultural consensus shapes what is acceptable and what is not
    • compare animals used for research in labs to animals in zoos
    • what can be done to make zoos better for animals?
      • Enriching their lives? Embracing their individuality? Knowing them as individuals?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

  • “What is it about the urban identity that requires a zoo?
  • What individual working animals do you know? In what contexts do you know them?”

Placing Animals

March 25, 2015

I think that Tuan’s concept of dominance and affection is extremely valid when it comes to animal-human relationships within the home. We control every aspect of their lives including who we want them to be at birth through adjusting temperament and phenotypes through breeding. Also, it would be socially unacceptable to own a dog that does not listen to commands and the idea of this makes people feel very uncomfortable or unsafe. But this problem only occurs for pets that possess the strength to do harm if not controlled such as dogs and horses. Maybe it is just within our natural instinct to want to control the non-human world but I think that these desires are passively portrayed through society. This may be a naïve statement, but I believe that the majority of pet owners do love and care for their animals as if they are equals within the family dynamic. Pets are also a great way to recognize the individuality of a non-human species, bring a piece of nature into people’s daily urban lifestyles. Overall, I agree with Tuan’s concept of humans asserting dominance upon their animals but I think many of these dominant relationships can resemble that of a parents wanting their child to do as they with the idea it will maintain a functioning household.

With many respects to economic geography Nast has performed ‘critical pet studies’. She claims that part of pet animal’s allure is that they can become whatever you want them to become. I generally disagree with this statement because I do not think that is a cause for getting a pet but actually an afterthought. To dress a pet according to ‘their’ personality (which is really a reflection of the owner’s) is something people become consumers that shop for ourselves to show our originality and taste. But I do agree that pets are a modern replacement for child in many homes. Nast also claims that this is the reason why people don’t have the time or money to devote to global issues such as inequalities and violence. These two idea don’t entirely coincide because people typically own pets to avoid constraints on potential lifestyle changes. I think this would mean that they actually have opportunities to take part in liberating and meaningful activities and can support with the money that would otherwise be focused on raising a child. Nest stated that people with pets incidentally love people less and can be correlated to to the increased crime rates. She gives no further evidence of this discussion and because they are both occurring more does not mean that one is the cause of the other.


Placing Animals (Urbanik) pt. 1

March 25, 2015

“Geography is central to both our everyday interactions with animals and to academic interest in understanding the variety of human-animal relationships around the world” (3). For me, that quote could not sum up the premise of this book, Placing Animals, any more than it already has. The increasing relevance of this topic astounds me. The consumption patterns and economic system our society thrives on is causing more and more environmental concern. I feel like if our ancestors could see us now they would be really confused. Why do we export animals and their flesh so far and wide? Why has increased availability meant decreasing sustainability? I had a lot of questions when I began this book and I’m glad Urbanik approached the topic in such an academic and informative way.

Similar concepts arose in this book that have appeared in other works we have read. One recurring theme is the value or worth of animals. Some view them as equal to humans (Singer) while others view them as objects, or lesser than humans. Some see animals as being here only to serve humans. The diagram on pg. 77 I think illustrated that category perfectly. Working animals were broken down into three categories: Education, Service, and Entertainment. I’m fascinated by the notion that humans expect animals to be there for their use but most have no idea how they got there. One example would be how animals arrive at zoos. I work at The Toledo Zoo and I remember people always being amazed watching the video of our crocodile, Baru, arriving in the Toledo airport. It was as though they thought he just materialized in his cage one day.

Another chapter that interested me was Chapter Three, Geographies of More-than-Human Homes and Cultures. “Pet animals allure in part because they can be anything and anyone you want them to be” (57). My family has four pets (cat, dog, and two fish) and often I wonder how we accumulated so many. I risk sounding harsh but what is “the point”, exactly?  I once saw a documentary on how our society chooses to treat homeless individuals and something that was said really resonated with me. One of the homeless individuals said something like “People see me and turn away but if there is a puppy on the street there are families rushing to take it in.” Why do we, as a society, tend to categorize animals as having less worth than us but feel the need to rescue them over a human?

This book so far has helped me to better understand human-animal relations and animal geography as a whole. I’m excited to continue reading.


Project Update

March 25, 2015

Continuing to collect bottles, the cookie offer still stands for anyone who brings me some. I’ll be sending a proposal for the demonstration to Professor Krygier sometime this week for him to send to B&G to approve.

I’ve decided to incorporate local and national statistics on the issue on the lamp posts I’ll be stinging the bottles to and from. I’ve found that sometimes people aren’t as receptive to information if it feels like a lot of it is being thrown at them.  Example: tabling in Hamwil. So I’ll recycle some old cardboard to give information for those who choose to read it. Facts will range from those on bottled water to municipal water and I will incorporate Delaware’s new water treatment facility into the information.

I’m getting excited for this to come together. This demonstration should happen mid to late April.


Little bits of plastic are being found everywhere

March 25, 2015

Surprise Finding Heightens Concern Over Tiny Bits Of Plastic Polluting Our Oceans

by: Lynne Peeples

read more at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/23/plastic-ocean-pollution-fish-health_n_6923872.html

Scientists are finding little bits of plastic in a lot of places lately: ice cores, deep sea sediments, coral reefs, crab gills, the digestive system of mussels, and even German beer. Now, new research suggests, scientists need not to be searching for the actual man-made material to discover it.

A team’s accidental finding of plastic in the skin of both farmed and wild fish adds to already growing environmental and public health concerns about the plastic particles pervading our oceans and waterways.

Over time, waves and sunlight break down large chunks of plastic, leaving the remnants of discarded packaging, bottles and bags nearly invisible to the naked eye. These so-called microplastics, particles under a millimeter across, may pose big troubles, experts warn.

MICROBEADS

“It fragments quickly. We fear that as plastic continues to break down, it becomes even more susceptible to being eaten or even embedded into their scales. Plastic has been found in creatures ranging from worms and barnacles to seabirds and marine mammals. Through bioaccumulation, Synthetic chemicals can then travel up the food chain, and potentially on to our dinner plates.

An estimated 5 to 13 million metric tons of plastic litter enters the world’s oceans every year. Since plastic does not biodegrade, it photodegrades, the plastic is accumulating each year.

microplastic

A blue rectangular piece of microplastic is visible on a researcher’s finger. (AP Photo/Ted S. Warren)

Decades of convenient plastics and environmental pollution “may be coming back to haunt us in our seafood,” said Chelsea Rochman, a postdoctoral fellow in conservation research at the University of California, Davis.

At the forefront of the current debate over microplastics are microbeads, the minuscule balls of petrochemical-derived plastic added to hundreds of cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes and exfoliating body washes. When they’re rinsed down the drain, microbeads can flow through sewer systems — where they are often too tiny to be efficiently filtered by wastewater treatment plants — and into lakes, rivers and, ultimately, oceans. They arrive in the environment already fish-food size, even before the waves and sun begin breaking them down.Microplastic pollution in the Great Lakes drove Illinois to pass the first ban on microbeads last summer. .

“There are a whole host of questions that could come out of this,” said Law. “We’re starting to ask more questions about our drinking water.” The most pressing need right now is to improve waste management systems so that they can properly capture the plastic.

“In the long-term, we all need to think about how we’re using plastic,” Law said. “Individual actions can add up to have a positive impact.”