For the past 14,000 years, the Middle East has practiced “Hima”. Hima translates to “protected place” and the concept was that before Islamic law interfered with Hima, an private land owner could set aside parts of his land to preserve. Any living organism in that area was to be protected, along with any stray animals that crossed into the area (including those from another herd).
Then, Islamic laws began to alter Hima, so that any land, private or public, could be set aside using Hima. These lands would either be permanent, or temporary.
I found it interesting that they considered Hima as not only a system to protect the earth, but also the people in the communities around the Hima areas (if I’m saying this correctly). It pushed people to share resources, to better manage land, and to live a more sustainable life.