- a system of cultivated plots
- places that are the combined product of human and bio-geographical factors
p112 the English iconographic counterpart to American wilderness is the countryside
The Enclosure Act s
(Wikipedia): Before enclosure, much of the arable land in the central region of England was organised into an open field system. Enclosure was not simply the fencing of existing holdings, but led to fundamental changes in agricultural practice. Scattered holdings of strips in the common field were consolidated to create individual farms that could be managed independently of other holdings. Prior to , rights to use the land were shared between land owners and villagers (commoners). For example, commoners would have the right (common right) to graze their livestock when crops or hay were not being grown, and on common pasture land. The land in a manor under this system would consist of
- Two or three very large common arable fields
- Several very large common hay meadows
- Closes, small areas of enclosed private land such as paddocks, orchards or gardens, mostly near houses
- In some cases, a park around the principal house, the manor house
- Common waste – rough pasture land (effectively everything not in the previous categories)
p116 “The manicured aesthetic of nature represented by Bacon and Newton, born of a wider belief in the perfectibility of nature, flourished in the 18th century.” A refined taste in landscape… A mechanistic conception of nature.
Pg121 “The price of a comparatively small patch of landscape beauty and composure might include more extensive ugliness and environmental dislocation elsewhere.”
Cultural Primitivism : happiness is greatest nearest to nature.
“Linked with this is the notion that what is natural should be a standard of human values. Nature may mean what is intrinsic, objective, normal, healthy, or universally valid. Various…” Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Animals. Do they suffer? Is it okay to eat them because it is natural? Should we avoid inflicting pain? Should we all become vegetarians?
What separates us from animals?
Pg135 “None wanted to trade permanently the benefits of modern life for the charms of existence in rude nature. Most sought only a temporary antidote. ‘Cartaracts and mountains are good occasional society’, Wordsworth conceded, ‘but they will not do for constant companions.’
Pg142 “Man is not some stranger in the universe, a supernatural vagabond, but an integral part of nature”
Pg176 “We have deprived nature of its independence, and that is fatal to its meaning. Nature’s independence is its meaning; without it there is nothing but us.”
“We have so thoroughly domesticated the earth and modified natural processes that it is no longer possible to speak of nature as something with a separate existence. Given the ubiquity of transnational pollutants such as acid ran, the world is now entirely of our own making.”
Pg184 “Ask a thoughtful Green what the greatest threat to nature is today and the answer might be ‘postmodernism’ rather than corporate capitalism, human greed or ignorance.”
P190 “The crucial question is not how wild or natural nature is, but how healthy it is.”