Nature: Chapters Six through Nine

Chapter 6:

1.  “The very language we use to conceptualize various aspects of nature derives from the realm of cultural forms.” -110

2. “The latest generation of human geographers and the “new” garden historians seek to reveal the victors and victims in the competition for control over the definition and use of nature”  -111

3.  “Landscapes of leisure were no more innocent and no less enclosed than the landscapes of agricultural process.”  -115

4.  “The impulse to wrap yourself  in the trappings of antiquity can be explained by the rise of an urban-based commercial class conscious of its perceived vulgarity and anxious to acquire social respectability and cultural status by purchasing rural estates.”  -118

5.  “As capitalism besieged the natural world, nature was increasingly defined as those places “where industry was not”.”  -120

Chapter 7:

1.  “The idea of nature predating man-made law stems from the classical (stoic) idea of nature as universal moral arbitrator.” -127

2 “The eighteenth-century search for a better civilization often led to the tropical islands.”  -129

3.  “Aesthetic concepts of nature, focusing on the external beauty of natural forms, cannot be divorced from metaphysical concepts of nature…”  -131

4.  “Thoreau’s ideas captivated John Muir, the Scottish-born crusader to wilderness preservations and national parks in the United States.  Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892 to combat threats to his most sacred space, the Sierra Nevada mountains in California.”  -134

5.  “…the Romantic ideology of nature is more ambiguous than is usually appreciated by today’s  environmentalists.”   -135

Chapter 8:

1.  “During the 1980’s, sociobiology revitalized Social Darwinism.”  -146

2. “Both Marx and Engels defined freedom largely in terms of emancipation from the problems of securing food, shelter and fuel.                    -149

3.  “According to the deep ecological world-view, “we the people”, who drive too many cars, use too many disposable nappies and eat too many hamburgers, must shoulder direct responsibility for out ecological predicament, instead of palming it off onto some wicked military-industrial complex, fat-cat elite, or exploitative economic order. “Real” solutions are sought at the individual level.”  -154

4.  “For social justice environmentalists the source of these problems is “environmental racism” -the deliberate location of environmentally hazardous facilities in disempowered. low-income and ethnic/racial minority communities.”   -157

5.  “…some of those at variance with the dominant ethos of industrial capitalism might be decried by those on the left as nostalgia-ridden  reactionaries.”  -162-3

Chapter 9:

1.  “The “end of nature” debate is more readily associated, however, with Bill McKibben’s The End of Nature (1990), a book about the dire implications of climate change induced by global warming for traditional ideas of nature and culture.”   -174

2.  “McKibben denies that nature has been slowly dying for centuries by drawing a qualitative distinction between the kind of damage inflicted through abusive logging, farming and hunting and a new order of assault constituted by various pollutants since 1945.”  -176

3.  “Climate change as the alleged cause of nature’s death has been rivaled (if not eclipsed) in the popular mind over recent years by advances in genetic engineering.”

4.  “…upholders of the sacred distinction between people and animals have pinpointed the ability to think in abstract terms as the critical divide.”   -183

5.  “How can we presume to know that a species wishes to avoid extinction? Or that a mountain has not been yearning for the day when a ski resort would break the monotony of the ages?”  -185

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