Chapter 1

  • Nature knows best, nature is often presumed to an objective reality with universal qualities unaffected by time, culture, and place.
  • Nature in the western world can be divided into five categories- as a physical place,  as the collective phenomena of the world/universe, an inspiration and guide for people as well as the source of authority governing human affairs, as the opposite of culture, and essential starting point.
  • By the 5th century in Greece, nature or natura had become an object of piety in it’s own right, endowed with a moral purpose and meaning independent of mankind.
  • In Lucretius’s view a man’s body made him a part of nature but his mind set him apart and was used to further explore nature.
  • Nature is incontrovertibly indiffernt to human fate.

Chapter 2

  • Nature is internal property rather than physical territory.
  • The notion that environmental problems are largely a modern phenomenon is also bellied by pollution in ancient cities from Babylon to Athens.
  • Christianity made it possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of objects.
  • Pythagoreans with their belief in the universal possession of soul thought all living creatures are rational as well as experienced the same emotions as humans.
  • European religious beliefs were especially conducive to earth care.

Chapter 3

  • Environmental transformation os often approached as a function of modernity, largely inconcieveable prior to the rise of capitalism and the scientific, agricultural and industrial eras.
  • There were many medieval misunderstandings of nature in the late 20th century.
  • Belying the conventional picture of stasis, natures ascendancy and human impotence, emerges a picture of human intervention on land and inland waters.
  • Climatic conditions have been known to be influential and sometimes decisive in the explanation of economic and demographic trends reflected in these changes in the land.
  • The advocate for the plaintiffs believed that insects were created prior to man.

Chapter 4

  • Martin Heidegger suggested how humanity has reduced the natural world to a resource to fuel its bottomless tank.
  • Aristotle, the investigation of the natural world was subordinate to the explanation of the spiritual realm and the contemplation of Gods perfection.
  • The only recognized limits on interference with the natural processes are those of human inequity and contrivance.
  • A host of ecofeminist contends that woman and nature share common stigmatization.
  • humans as thinking beings ultimate proof of their seperation from the rest of creation.

Chapter 5

  • European trade was absorbed into existing inter-tribal networks.
  • The designation of the Indian as pioneer ecologist certainly entails a loose understanding of ecology.
  • some elements of Indian thinking and practice involved the notions of conservation and ecology.
  • The physical environment of the new world bore heavier human traces in 1492 than the mid 1700s before mass immigration from Europe.
  • The notion of human disturbance of nature was something that was set aside for Europeans since there are profound implications for environmental management policies that can influence the definition of what is a natural environment.

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